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<br />In apply, however, the incidence of sensitization appears to be low. In animal research, the toxicological results reported to be caused by administration of resorcinol embrace thyroid dysfunction, irritation to pores and skin and eyes, CNS effects, and altered adrenal gland relative weights. After topical use of high concentrations of resorcinol, CNS disturbances, such as dizziness, vertigo, confusion, disorientation, amnesia, or tremors, or pink blood cell changes, similar to methaemoglobinaemia, haemolytic anaemia, haemoglubinuria, or cyanosis, have been reported. One factor growing potential poisonous results is the application of resorcinol to injured skin.<br /><br /><h2></h2><br />The third study, performed in , included of active workers. In [https://getpocket.com/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Fmwsoft.xyz https://getpocket.com/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Fmwsoft.xyz] , 13 girls with a imply age of 37 years, each laboratory and different exams, including medical examination, have been carried out; no abnormal thyroid glands or changes in T 4 values were present in any of the subjects compared with regular values Bauer, The above knowledge are restricted due to small examine sizes, lack of comparison teams, lacking present and historic control information, and missing data concerning potential publicity categories. In a study in a plant producing resorcinol by sulfonation of benzene — and in addition producing beta -resorcylic acid, resorcinol—formaldehyde resins, sulfites, and sulfates — staff have been exposed primarily to resorcinol, but the exposure to different brokers was not measured for publicity levels, see part 6. In this plant, three cross-sectional studies had been carried out between and Flickinger, In , medical examinations, chest X-rays, pulmonary perform, haematology, and scientific chemistry had been performed with of persons actively employed at a manufacturing plant in Pennsylvania, USA. In addition, male rats have higher circulating ranges of TSH than females.<br /><br />There have been no printed animal research displaying thyroidal results with a dose—response relationship that might be used for a tolerable consumption. In the frame of a full life cycle toxicity check OECD TG , Lima noticed no antagonistic effects after 48 h of publicity at the highest concentration examined, 0. Furthermore, [https://www.instapaper.com/read/1275958661 https://www.instapaper.com/read/1275958661] et al. The fish and pond snails have been placed immediately into the aquaria, whereas the remaining 5 species had been segregated in different baskets and suspended in the aquaria. The only investigation into this finish-level is that from the dose vary-finding research reported in sections eight.<br />Other skin results had been hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, irritation, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, whereas there have been no systemic treatment-related lesions. With resorcinol, a number of initiation—promotion studies with hamsters Maruyama et al. Female Syrian golden hamsters 10—20 per group have been handled with two subcutaneous injections of. In a study carried out by Hasegawa et al.<br />Although thyroid effects are a significant finish-point in each human case-studies and animal research, there's a lack of consistency within the ends in the animal research. Resorcinol brought on no adverse effects in a number of copy and developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits. Resorcinol just isn't considered to be genotoxic.<br />No resorcinol-associated macroscopic findings, organ weight, or antagonistic microscopic goal organ effects have been noticed in the F 0 and F 1 parental animals. The F 0 and F 1 females continued to receive the resorcinol throughout mating, gestation, and lactation and through the day of euthanasia for research design, see Appendix 7. There have been no F zero and F 1 parental resorcinol-associated deaths or clinical findings through the weekly detailed physical examinations. In controls and the high-dose group, a qualitative histopathological analysis of the mind forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain was also carried out for the aforementioned animals RTF, There had been no opposed effects concerning reproductive performance, mortality, and body or organ weights.<br /><br /><h1></h1><br />Fifty per cent of survivors have been sacrificed 1 week later, and blood and urine samples were taken. Resorcinol confirmed a concentration-dependent enhance in labelling index [ 3 H]thymidine , acanthosis, and papillomatosis. After software of an ointment containing To research the goitrogenic activity of resorcinol, feminine Wistar rats were treated twice daily for 28 days by rubbing 6 g of an ointment containing Increased thyroid gland weights 2.<br />From its use in topical medicine and from limited information from occupational studies, resorcinol doesn't seem like irritating to the skin in the concentrations reported. Van Leeuwen et al. There is not any indication as as to whether the teratogenic effects were endocrine mediated or not EC, c. In humans, dermal publicity to resorcinol has been reported to be associated with thyroid results, CNS disturbances, pink blood cell adjustments, and a low incidence of pores and skin sensitization. Five of 3.<br /><br /><h3></h3><br />In [https://www.pinterest.com/kanstrupxu/ https://www.pinterest.com/kanstrupxu/] , the upper sensitivity can be associated to a shorter plasma half-life of T 4 than in humans due to considerable variations between species within the transport proteins for thyroid hormones. In plasma, the T four half-life is about 12—24 h in rats vs 5—9 days in people, and the serum ranges of TSH are about 25 instances greater in rodents than in people.<br /><br /><h4></h4><br />According to the results obtained, Daphnia magna is probably the most delicate organism, and resorcinol may be categorised as acutely toxic solely to Daphnia. However, this worth is questionable to be used as a limit worth in risk evaluation this is the best focus tested in this research , and the NOEC might be considerably larger than said in the study. In the ambiance, resorcinol is quickly degraded half-life about 2 h by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Under aerobic circumstances, resorcinol proved to be readily biodegradable in a check performed based on OECD TG C, and it's prone to be biodegraded underneath anaerobic situations.<br />In in vitro human pores and skin research, resorcinol was evaluated from a representative hair dye formulation that contained zero. However, it ought to be considered that acned skin may be broken due both to scratching or to the blemishes themselves.
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<br />British Journal of Industrial Medicine , Toxicologic Pathology , Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology , Arnott DG, Doniach I The impact of compounds allied to resorcinol upon the uptake of radioactive iodine I by the thyroid of the rat. IARC evaluated the carcinogenicity of resorcinol in and concluded that there are not any epidemiological data relevant to the carcinogenicity of resorcinol in humans and that the evidence of its carcinogenicity in animals is insufficient; thus, resorcinol isn't classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to people. JECFA assessed the hazards from the use of resorcinol as a food flavouring agent and concluded that this use is of no safety concern. Overall, the studies are not enough for a statistical extrapolation technique based on the EU Technical Guidance Document EC, a.<br />Fifty per cent of survivors had been sacrificed 1 week later, and blood and urine samples were taken. Resorcinol confirmed a focus-dependent increase in labelling index [ three H]thymidine , acanthosis, and papillomatosis. After application of an ointment containing To research the goitrogenic activity of resorcinol, feminine Wistar rats had been treated twice day by day for 28 days by rubbing 6 g of an ointment containing Increased thyroid gland weights 2.<br />The organisms had been uncovered to the test concentrations for ninety six h. Biological observations had been performed every day.<br />For the benthic and terrestrial compartments, the out there toxicity information cannot be regarded as adequate for a quantitative risk characterization. However, these compartments are less related for resorcinol, due to marginal releases and emissions to these compartments in addition to a really low potential for adsorption of resorcinol to organic matter.<br /><br /><h2></h2><br />Animals that died showed hyperaemia and distension of stomach and intestine, while there were no gross lesions at necropsy in survivors Flickinger, In one other research with CFY rats. Most of the studies are of enough quality and acceptable for danger characterization purposes.<br /><br />As is well-known in dermal absorption studies, the nature of the car has an excellent affect on the absorption of a compound. Resorcinol appears to be absorbed much better from anti-acne preparations than from the hair dye preparations underneath regular utilization circumstances.<br /><br /><h3></h3><br />Complete recovery in all animals occurred inside 1—1. Of the next research, the repeated-dose toxicity research that had been deemed to be most related to the danger assessment are summarized in Appendix 6. In a study carried out by NTP , 5 male and female F rats have been dosed with resorcinol in deionized water via gavage at zero, High-dose females had significantly decreased absolute and relative thymus weights. No different biologically vital differences in organ weights have been noticed. In distinction to those findings, Eastin et al.<br /><br /><ul><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>As is well-known in dermal absorption studies, the nature of the vehicle has an excellent influence on the absorption of a compound.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>In another examine, rats have been exposed to 0 or 0.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>Mean data for three donors and sixteen replicates point out a plateau in receptor fluid concentration between 24 and 48 h, as mirrored by cumulative absorption values of 1.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>In one research carried out with male Syrian golden hamsters, which focused solely on effects on the forestomach, pyloric region, and urinary bladder, the animals were dosed with zero or zero.</li><br />  <br />  <br /> <br /> <li>Van Leeuwen et al.</li><br />  <br /> <br /> <br /></ul><br />From its use in topical medication and from restricted information from occupational research, resorcinol does not seem like irritating to the skin in the concentrations reported. Van Leeuwen et al. There isn't any indication as as to whether the teratogenic results had been endocrine mediated or not EC, c. In humans, dermal publicity to resorcinol has been reported to be associated with thyroid effects, CNS disturbances, purple blood cell changes, and a low incidence of pores and skin sensitization. Five of three.<br /><br /><h1></h1><br />In rodents, the upper sensitivity can be associated to a shorter plasma half-lifetime of T four than in people due to appreciable variations between species within the transport proteins for thyroid hormones. In plasma, the T 4 half-life is about 12—24 h in rats vs 5—9 days in humans, and the serum levels of TSH are about 25 times larger in rodents than in people.<br />The third research, performed in , included of lively employees. In subjects men, 13 girls with a imply age of 37 years, both laboratory and other checks, together with medical examination, were accomplished; no irregular thyroid glands or changes in T 4 values had been present in any of the subjects when compared with regular values Bauer, The above data are restricted due to small research sizes, lack of comparison teams, missing present and historic management information, and missing information regarding potential exposure classes. In a examine in a plant producing resorcinol by sulfonation of benzene — and also producing beta -resorcylic acid, resorcinol—formaldehyde resins, sulfites, and sulfates — staff have been exposed primarily to resorcinol, however the exposure to different agents was not measured for exposure ranges, see part 6. In this plant, three cross-sectional studies had been carried out between and Flickinger, In , medical examinations, chest X-rays, pulmonary operate, haematology, and clinical chemistry had been performed with of persons actively employed at a production plant in Pennsylvania, USA. In addition, male rats have greater circulating levels of TSH than females.<br />In in vitro genotoxicity exams, resorcinol confirmed largely adverse results. Results from all reported in vivo exams for genotoxicity were unfavorable. Mostly negative outcomes were reported within the initiation—promotion studies performed using a number of species. UV irradiation brought on no elevated pores and skin reactions. The iodination course of is catalysed by a haem-containing enzyme.<br /><br />The elimination was biphasic, with half-lives of 18—21 min and 8. The 14 C activity was quickly distributed in major tissues such as muscles, kidneys, and liver, with out indication of bioaccumulation Merker et al. Any new information being provided in the middle of the OECD assessment might be supplied to the IPCS so that an addendum can be prepared for consideration.<br />From the scarce information obtainable, using resorcinol in hair dyes 0. The use of anti-acne cream is taken because the situation of most concern because of the chance of continuous publicity.<br />Thyroid glands from all surviving F zero parents were examined microscopically, and mind measurements were performed on all exposed F 1 pups and those F 1 pups selected for behavioural testing. There have been no vital intercourse differences. In females, a larger proportion was excreted as sulfate conjugate, whereas males excreted a higher proportion of a diconjugate both sulfate and glucuronide groups. From these data, the authors concluded that male rats have the next capability for glucuronidation than females.<br />Furthermore, persistent research with fish and Daphnia have been conducted. For the toxicity to aquatic plants, no guideline study is available. However, taking into account the out there research for toxicity to aquatic crops, the NOEC for algae could be assumed to be greater than that for Daphnia magna. Exposure to resorcinol by way of peeling agents presents an acute publicity state of affairs the place the person is exposed to a excessive focus 7. Acute results have been described under these conditions.

Revision as of 23:10, 9 February 2020


British Journal of Industrial Medicine , Toxicologic Pathology , Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology , Arnott DG, Doniach I The impact of compounds allied to resorcinol upon the uptake of radioactive iodine I by the thyroid of the rat. IARC evaluated the carcinogenicity of resorcinol in and concluded that there are not any epidemiological data relevant to the carcinogenicity of resorcinol in humans and that the evidence of its carcinogenicity in animals is insufficient; thus, resorcinol isn't classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to people. JECFA assessed the hazards from the use of resorcinol as a food flavouring agent and concluded that this use is of no safety concern. Overall, the studies are not enough for a statistical extrapolation technique based on the EU Technical Guidance Document EC, a.
Fifty per cent of survivors had been sacrificed 1 week later, and blood and urine samples were taken. Resorcinol confirmed a focus-dependent increase in labelling index [ three H]thymidine , acanthosis, and papillomatosis. After application of an ointment containing To research the goitrogenic activity of resorcinol, feminine Wistar rats had been treated twice day by day for 28 days by rubbing 6 g of an ointment containing Increased thyroid gland weights 2.
The organisms had been uncovered to the test concentrations for ninety six h. Biological observations had been performed every day.
For the benthic and terrestrial compartments, the out there toxicity information cannot be regarded as adequate for a quantitative risk characterization. However, these compartments are less related for resorcinol, due to marginal releases and emissions to these compartments in addition to a really low potential for adsorption of resorcinol to organic matter.


Animals that died showed hyperaemia and distension of stomach and intestine, while there were no gross lesions at necropsy in survivors Flickinger, In one other research with CFY rats. Most of the studies are of enough quality and acceptable for danger characterization purposes.

As is well-known in dermal absorption studies, the nature of the car has an excellent affect on the absorption of a compound. Resorcinol appears to be absorbed much better from anti-acne preparations than from the hair dye preparations underneath regular utilization circumstances.


Complete recovery in all animals occurred inside 1—1. Of the next research, the repeated-dose toxicity research that had been deemed to be most related to the danger assessment are summarized in Appendix 6. In a study carried out by NTP , 5 male and female F rats have been dosed with resorcinol in deionized water via gavage at zero, High-dose females had significantly decreased absolute and relative thymus weights. No different biologically vital differences in organ weights have been noticed. In distinction to those findings, Eastin et al.





  • As is well-known in dermal absorption studies, the nature of the vehicle has an excellent influence on the absorption of a compound.




  • In another examine, rats have been exposed to 0 or 0.




  • Mean data for three donors and sixteen replicates point out a plateau in receptor fluid concentration between 24 and 48 h, as mirrored by cumulative absorption values of 1.




  • In one research carried out with male Syrian golden hamsters, which focused solely on effects on the forestomach, pyloric region, and urinary bladder, the animals were dosed with zero or zero.




  • Van Leeuwen et al.





From its use in topical medication and from restricted information from occupational research, resorcinol does not seem like irritating to the skin in the concentrations reported. Van Leeuwen et al. There isn't any indication as as to whether the teratogenic results had been endocrine mediated or not EC, c. In humans, dermal publicity to resorcinol has been reported to be associated with thyroid effects, CNS disturbances, purple blood cell changes, and a low incidence of pores and skin sensitization. Five of three.


In rodents, the upper sensitivity can be associated to a shorter plasma half-lifetime of T four than in people due to appreciable variations between species within the transport proteins for thyroid hormones. In plasma, the T 4 half-life is about 12—24 h in rats vs 5—9 days in humans, and the serum levels of TSH are about 25 times larger in rodents than in people.
The third research, performed in , included of lively employees. In subjects men, 13 girls with a imply age of 37 years, both laboratory and other checks, together with medical examination, were accomplished; no irregular thyroid glands or changes in T 4 values had been present in any of the subjects when compared with regular values Bauer, The above data are restricted due to small research sizes, lack of comparison teams, missing present and historic management information, and missing information regarding potential exposure classes. In a examine in a plant producing resorcinol by sulfonation of benzene — and also producing beta -resorcylic acid, resorcinol—formaldehyde resins, sulfites, and sulfates — staff have been exposed primarily to resorcinol, however the exposure to different agents was not measured for exposure ranges, see part 6. In this plant, three cross-sectional studies had been carried out between and Flickinger, In , medical examinations, chest X-rays, pulmonary operate, haematology, and clinical chemistry had been performed with of persons actively employed at a production plant in Pennsylvania, USA. In addition, male rats have greater circulating levels of TSH than females.
In in vitro genotoxicity exams, resorcinol confirmed largely adverse results. Results from all reported in vivo exams for genotoxicity were unfavorable. Mostly negative outcomes were reported within the initiation—promotion studies performed using a number of species. UV irradiation brought on no elevated pores and skin reactions. The iodination course of is catalysed by a haem-containing enzyme.

The elimination was biphasic, with half-lives of 18—21 min and 8. The 14 C activity was quickly distributed in major tissues such as muscles, kidneys, and liver, with out indication of bioaccumulation Merker et al. Any new information being provided in the middle of the OECD assessment might be supplied to the IPCS so that an addendum can be prepared for consideration.
From the scarce information obtainable, using resorcinol in hair dyes 0. The use of anti-acne cream is taken because the situation of most concern because of the chance of continuous publicity.
Thyroid glands from all surviving F zero parents were examined microscopically, and mind measurements were performed on all exposed F 1 pups and those F 1 pups selected for behavioural testing. There have been no vital intercourse differences. In females, a larger proportion was excreted as sulfate conjugate, whereas males excreted a higher proportion of a diconjugate both sulfate and glucuronide groups. From these data, the authors concluded that male rats have the next capability for glucuronidation than females.
Furthermore, persistent research with fish and Daphnia have been conducted. For the toxicity to aquatic plants, no guideline study is available. However, taking into account the out there research for toxicity to aquatic crops, the NOEC for algae could be assumed to be greater than that for Daphnia magna. Exposure to resorcinol by way of peeling agents presents an acute publicity state of affairs the place the person is exposed to a excessive focus 7. Acute results have been described under these conditions.